The administration repeatedly has suggested that the negotiators were making progress.
Via Twitter, the president said that insufficient progress in bilateral talks would prompt him to hike duties on certain Chinese goods as early as Friday, which were originally held in abeyance pending the outcome of trade talks.
Mr. Trump turned up the heat by saying he would raise import taxes on $200 billion in Chinese products to 25 percent from 10 percent Friday.
Trump asserted that so far the tariffs he slapped on Chinese goods "are partially responsible" for the robust USA economy, which in the first quarter grew at an annual rate of 3.2 percent.
Michael O'Rourke, chief market strategist at JonesTrading in Greenwich, Connecticut said China's reaction to Trump's would be the next big catalyst for investors who may see the President's comments as a negotiating tactic.
Trump said on Sunday that his tariffs have had little impact on product costs in the United States and have been "mostly borne by China", an argument rejected by most economists.
It is understood that key sticking points include how to police any deal, and whether existing tariffs will be removed or stay in place.
So far, the United States has imposed tariffs on $250bn of Chinese goods, having accused the country of unfair trade practices.
Chinese President Xi Jinping's top trade envoy, Liu He, returns to Washington on Wednesday for what was expected to be a closing round of trade talks.
But a March study by economists from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Columbia University, and Princeton University found that the burden of Mr. Trump's tariffs - including taxes on steel, aluminum, solar panels, and Chinese imports - falls entirely on USA consumers and businesses who buy imported products.
U.S. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude futures were at $60.44 per barrel at 0032 GMT on Monday, down $1.50 per barrel, or 2.4 percent, from their last settlement. Instead, U.S. officials would strike a deal that would prevent tariffs from going higher.
Trump is also demanding that China halt intellectual property theft and subsidies to state-owned companies. -China trade deficit by fair trade.
Any sign of an escalation in the months-long trade war is nearly sure to roil financial markets, which have reacted sensitively to developments in the talks between the world's two largest economies.