One of the rockets was reportedly intercepted by Israel's Iron Dome anti-missile system, while the other fell in an open field.
Residents of the Tel Aviv area reported hearing two explosions with sirens heard throughout the Dan region.
Minutes later, the Israeli military reported air raid sirens in southern Israel.
Hamas denied responsibility for the attack on Tel Aviv, saying the rockets were launched when the group's military wing was meeting with Egyptian mediators to try to strengthen a cease-fire with Israel.
Israel holds Hamas responsible for any rocket fire from Gaza, even if carried out by smaller groups outside direct Hamas control.
Brig. Gen. Ronen Manelis, the chief Israeli military spokesman, said the army had been caught off guard by Thursday night's rocket barrage.
"Hamas violently suppresses its own people demonstrating against Hamas' rule & failures today and NOW fires rockets at cities in Israel".
The apparent rocket fire came in response to Israeli airstrikes, launched after an early rocket attack on Tel Aviv. So did Hamas, apparently, with a group's official telling Israeli media that Hamas is "not interested in an escalation" and does not know who fired the two rockets.
"Gantz is Hamas" wet dream", Bennett tweeted on Wednesday morning, as reported by far-right news outlet Israel National News. Palestinian witnesses told Reuters that Israeli warplanes targeted two Hamas security positions in the south and north of the Gaza Strip.
"The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades affirms that it's not responsible for the rockets fired towards the enemy earlier tonight, especially considering they were shot off during a meeting between the Hamas leadership and the Egyptian security delegation about understandings pertaining to the Gaza Strip", the Brigades said.
The missile launches come less than a month before the April 9 Knesset elections, and two months before Tel Aviv is due to host the Eurovision Song Contest, a major worldwide event that is expected to draw many thousands of tourists from all over Europe. The territory is home to other militant groups, including Islamic Jihad, an Iranian-backed armed organization that also has a formidable rocket arsenal.
"I'd suggest to Hamas - don't count on it".
An Israeli military spokeswoman told Middle East Eye that the rockets were fired on Thursday evening local time and triggered Tel Aviv's missile-attack sirens.