A Labour frontbench amendment, chosen by the Bercow, instructs May to seek an unspecified extension to article 50 to avoid exiting the European Union on 29 March without a deal and "to provide parliamentary time for this house to find a majority for a different approach.".
The vote gives Prime Minister Theresa May some breathing space, but is still humbling for a leader who has spent two years telling Britons they were leaving the bloc on March 29.
But there was some good news for May, as lawmakers rejected an attempt to strip her of control over Brexit.
Theresa May then narrowly saw off a bid by MPs to seize control of the Brexit process.
The cross-party amendment, tabled by MPs including Labour's Hilary Benn and Yvette Cooper and Tory Sir Oliver Letwin, would have forced a set of "indicative votes" to determine the preferred Brexit outcome of the House of Commons.
On January 11th this year, Mrs May ruled out an extension via her official spokesman in response to remarks by the Foreign and Commonwealth Secretary that Brexit might not happen if her deal was blocked, in an effort to assuage the concerns of Brexiteer MPs and voters that she would not deliver on 2016 referendum result as she promised before she became Prime Minister and in her 2017 election manifesto. There is no majority in Parliament for anything on Brexit - and that is the problem which only a People's Vote can solve.
Thirdly, Ms Rudd abstained from voting on the government's amended motion ruling out a no-deal Brexit, which was also passed.
But another defeat for her deal, a third in a row, could lead May to decide the game is up and that it is time to quit.
She is seeking to win over Brexit-backing opponents in her own party and its Northern Irish political ally, the Democratic Unionist Party, who fear the deal keeps Britain too closely tied to the EU.
Charles Walker, a senior Tory backbencher, has said May will have to hold one. MPs have already agreed to that to enable all the necessary legislation to be passed.
"Although a no-deal exit was voted down, we can not predict what will happen because it depends on how negotiations with the European Union will go, We will have to watch developments closely", Aso said. Few opposition lawmakers backed the measure and even campaigners for a "People's Vote" said the time was not yet right for parliament to vote on it.
"Under no circumstances an extension in the dark!" tweeted the European Parliament's Brexit coordinator, Guy Verhofstadt.
The European Council is due to meet next on March 21-22.
Anxious businesses are pleading for action and US President Donald Trump waded in to pronounce himself "surprised to see how badly it has all gone".
This is the date May has given for an exit under her deal.
Speaking alongside Irish Prime Minister Leo Varadkar at the White House, Trump said Britain's debate over leaving the European Union was "tearing the country apart".
PM Theresa May leaves 10 Downing Street ahead of the vote on delaying Brexit.
Gavin Robinson, a DUP MP, said the party believed a long delay to Brexit would be a disaster.
"I will appeal to the EU27 (remaining members) to be open to a long extension if the United Kingdom finds it necessary to rethink its Brexit strategy and build consensus around it", he said.